There have been many theories about the methods used to create Damascus steel. Many have wondered what it is, and many have tried to replicate the process step by step. But the true process remains a mystery. It's known that the process combined iron with other raw materials. This includes carbon, which would create a stronger and more durable finished product.
The key to making the distinctive and beautiful Damascus pattern is by folding multiple metals together. For modern versions, the wavy patterns come from something similar, except with twists. Which is why you'll see it called "Twisted Damascus Steel". This production process creates unique and dark patterns in the metal.
Then, it's forged together inside a box and smoothed with a perfect finish. Upon removing the box, the remaining steel ingot brick is put back in a forge. It's then heated and hammered into a rod and twisted to create the Damascus pattern. The outer layers of metal are then shaved off, which leaves us with the modern version.
The unique Damascus patterns are a testament to the considerable skill of the craftsman who create them. Damascus colors are usually a combination of silver and gray, with a beautiful, metallic sheen. No pattern is the same on Damascus steel. The blade looks bumpy with a rough surface, yet its exterior is a smooth surface that feels like any other types of steel. The end result is a metal with a beautiful, intricate design that is perfect for many things, jewelry included.